Long means buy positions.
Short means sell positions.
Why long and short?
There are many made up words in Forex world, and all of them have each original meaning and reasons.
Long and short means the direction of the orders you place.
This is because the trading market tends to go upwards for a longer time than downwards time, and also tends to go downwards for a shorter time than upwards.
So the investors before thought that market goes up by taking time and slowly, but when it falls, it happens really fast in short time.
And now the orders to buy is called “Long position”, and order to sell is called “Short position” describing the situation of the market trends.
Bull and Bear
You may hear these words “Bull market” and “Bear market” in many articles or technical analysis.
Bull market means the upwards market trend, and bull market means the downwards market trend.
These words come from the way bull and bears fight.
Bears tend to push enemies down, and bulls go attack enemies by lifting its horns up.
Dovish and hawkish
Dovish and hawkish are used when the economy policies are set more aggressive or passive.
Dovish means more passive, and traders tend to take that as a negative sign.
Hawkish otherwise means more aggressive situation, so traders normally take that as a positive sign for the currency.
All these words are created to describe the market situations, and no one uses them for trading platforms or in some economical contracts yet.